Level-2_Lecture-1


शब्दरचना THE CONSTRUCTION OF WORD (ACTION / NOUN) IN SANSKRIT


संस्कृतम् 

कृ =  Root Sound.
सं = Well (Prefix / उपसर्ग) => Modifies the root sound.
कृतम् = To Do (Suffix / प्रत्यय) => Adds more context as to how the root sound should be used.
It is important to know what suffix to apply to every Root word. Therefore all words in Sanskrit are divided into two.
  1. Name related words
  2. Action related words
रमण: (Raman boy therefore visarga)
राम: (Raam is boy therefore visarga)
रमा (Ramaa is a girl therefore no visarga)
All above words are NAME words. (Not ACTION words)
रम् = Root Word

यदा कदा नाम शब्द अस्ति तत्र त्रय प्रकारे प्रत्यय अस्ति |

For name related words there are 3 factors that decide what suffixes to put.


प्रकार – 1: लिङ्ग GENDER (3 types)
1. पुरुष लिङ्ग
2. स्त्री लिङ्ग
3. नपुन्सक लिङ्ग
प्रकार – 2: वचन (3 types)
1. एक-वचन
2. द्वि-वचन
3. बहु-वचन
प्रकार – 3: विभक्ति (There are 7 types)
कर्ता – Who (Nominative) 1 – प्रथमा
उसे (कर्म) – To (Accusative) 2 – द्वितीया
द्वारा (करण) – By (Instrumental) 3 – तृतीया
उसके लिये (संप्रदान) – For (Dative) 4 – चतुर्थी
उसमे से (अपादान) – From (Ablative) 5 – पञ्चमी
उसका (संबन्ध) – His / Her/ Its (Genitive) 6 – षष्टि
उसमे (अधिकरण) – Where (Locative) 7 – सप्तमि
हे! (सम्बोधनम्) – calling (Vocative) सम्बोधनम्

यदा कदा क्रियापदं शब्द अस्ति तत्र अपि त्रय भिन्न भिन्न प्रकारे प्रत्यय अस्ति |

For ACTION related words as well there are 3 factors that decide what suffixes to put. Action words are further TENSE wise categorized into 3, ie. Past, Present, Future. The examples below cover only PRESENT TENSE.


Those 3 factors are purusha, namely:

1st  person = UTTAMA Purush
2nd person = MADHYAMA Purush
3rd  person = PRATHAMA Purush [Do not confuse prathama as 1st person].

1. उत्तम पुरुष [अस्मद / I, we 2, we 3 or more]

(क्रिया – आमि, आव:, आम:)

एकवचन when AH+AM अहम् (I) then PIB+AAMI पिब+आमि=पिबामि

  • अहं चलामि [I am walking].
  • अहं धावामि [I am running]. 
  • अहं खेलामि [I am playing].
  • अहं नमामि [I am bowing down].

द्विवचन when AAV+AAM आवाम् (WE 2) then PIB+AVha: पिब+आव:=पीबाव:

  • आवां चलाव: [We two are walking].
  • आवां धावाव: [We two are running].
  • आवां खेलाव: [We two are playing].
  • आवां नमाव: [We two are bowing down].

बहुवचन when VAY+AM वयम् (WE 3 or more ) then PIB+AAMAha: पिब+आम:=पीबाम:

  • वयं चलाम: [We all are walking].
  • वयं धावाम: [We all are running].
  • वयं खेलाम: [We all are playing].
  • वयं नमाम: [We all are bowing down].

2. मध्यम पुरुष [युष्मद / You , You 2, You 3 or more]

(क्रिया – सी, थ:, थ)

एकवचन when TV+AM त्वम (YOU) then PIB+ASI पिब+सी=पिबसी 

  • त्वं चलसि [You are walking].
  • त्वं धावसि [You are running]. 
  • त्वं खेलसि [You are playing].
  • त्चं नमसि [You are bowing down].

द्विवचन when YUV+AM युवां (YOU TWO) then PIB+THAha: पिब+थ:=पिबथ:

  • युवां चलथ: [You two are walking].
  • युवां धावथ: [You two are running].
  • युवां खेलथ: [You two are playing].
  • युवां नमथ: [You two are bowing down].

बहुवचन when VUY+AM यूयं (YOU THREE OR MORE) then PIB+THA पीब+थ=पीबथ 

  • यूयं चलथ [You all are walking].
  • यूयं धावथ [You all are running]. 
  • यूयं खेलथ [You all are playing].
  • यूयं  नमथ [You all are bowing down].

PLEASE NOTICE 1 thing. In UTTAM purush & MADHYAMA purush there was no GENDER. So, there is no HE or SHE or IT in ME, US 2, US 3,   OR  YOU, YOU 2, YOU 3. But you will see that in Pratham Purush.


3. प्रथम पुरुष  [परस्मैपद / Person far away from you]

(क्रिया – ति, त:, अन्ति)

Again that person could be either he, she or it.

3.1 – पुल्लिन्ग [HE]

एकवचन when it is SAha: स: (That One He) then it is PIB + ATI = PIBATI, पिब + ति = पिबति 

  • स: चलति [He is walking].
  • स:  धावति [He is running].
  • स: खेलति [He is playing].
  • स: नमति [He is bowing down].

द्विवचन when it is Tau तौ (Those Two He) then it is PIB + ATAha: = PIBATAha:, पिब + त: = पिबत:

  • तौ चलत: [Those 2 men are walking].
  • तौ धावत: [Those 2 men are running]. 
  • तौ खेलत: [Those 2 men are playing].
  • तौ नमत: [Those 2 men are bowing down].

बहुवचन when it is Te ते (Those Three or more He) then it is PIB + ANTI = PIBANTI,  पीब + अन्ति= पिबन्ति 

  • ते चलन्ति [Those men are walking].
  • ते धावन्ति [Those men are running]. 
  • ते खेलन्ति [Those men are playing].
  • ते नमन्ति [Those men are bowing down].

3.2 – स्त्रीलिन्ग [SHE]
एकवचन when it is SAA सा (One She) then it is PIB + ATI = PIBATI, पिब + ति = पिबति 

  • सा चलति [She is walking].
  • सा धावति [She is running]. 
  • सा खेलति [She is playing].
  • सा नमति [She is bowing down].

द्विवचन when it is TE ते (Two She) then it is PIB + ATAha: = PIBATAha:, पिब + त: = पिबत:

  • ते चलत: [Those two females are walking].
  • ते धावत: [Those two females are running].
  • ते खेलत: [Those two females are playing].
  • ते नमत: [Those two females are bowing down].

बहुवचन when it is TAha: ता: (Three or more She) then it is PIB + ANTI = PIBANTI,  पीब + अन्ति= पिबन्ति 

  • ता: चलन्ति [Those females are walking].
  • ता: धावन्ति [Those females are running]. 
  • ता: खेलन्ति [Those females are playing].
  • ता: नमन्ति [Those females are bowing down].

3.3 – नपुन्सक्लिन्ग [IT]
एकवचन when it is TAT तत् (One IT) then it is PIB + ATI = PIBATI, पिब + ति = पिबति 

  • तत् चलति [It is walking].
  • तत् धावति [It is running]. 
  • तत् खेलति [It is playing].
  • तत् नमति [It is bowing down].

द्विवचन when it is TE ते (Two IT) then it is PIB + ATAha: = PIBATAha:, पिब + त: = पिबत:

  • ते चलत: [Those 2 things are walking].
  • ते धावत: [Those 2 things are running]. 
  • ते खेलत:[Those 2 things are playing].
  • ते नमत:[Those 2 things are bowing down].

बहुवचन when it is  TAANI तानी (Three or more IT) then it is PIB + ANTI = PIBANTI,  पीब + अन्ति= पिबन्ति

  • तानि चलन्ति [Those things are walking].
  • तानि धावन्ति [Those things are running]. 
  • तानि खेलन्ति [Those things are playing].
  • तानि नमन्ति [Those things are bowing down].

SOME root (Action) WORDS
भक्ष् , to eat
बुध् , to know
चर्च् , to peruse, to study



संस्कृत लोकोक्त्य:

  1. न चेतनवतां वृत्तिभयम् |
    સ્ફૂર્તિમાન ને આજીવિકાની ચિંતા નથી રહેતી. Bread & butter are never worries for an active person.
  2. न सिञ्चति पुस्पार्थि शुष्कतरुम् |
    ફળની આશા રાખનાર સૂકા વૃક્ષને નથી સિંચતો. No point in watering dried tree.
  3. न वंशवृक्षेषु फलन्ति द्राक्षा: |
    વાંસના વૃક્ષ પર દ્રાક્ષ નથી ઉગતી. Bamboo tree doesn’t fruit grapes.
  4. न क्वापि सरलेन पदं निधीयते |
    સીધી આંગળીથી ઘી નથી નીકળતું. Ghee doesn’t come out with straight finger.
  5. न निश्चतार्थाद्विरमन्ति धीरा: |
    ધીર મનુષ્ય પોતાના નિશ્ચયથી વિચલિત નથી થતો. Patient man is unshakable.
  6. नास्ति गतिश्रमो यानवताम् |
    વાહન હોવાથી આવનજાવનનો શ્રમ નથી થતો. Vehicle saves travel labor.

VikasImanSamman